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Design Considerations for Terracotta Rainscreen Systems

20 Jun 2022 by Fairview

Terracotta cladding is renowned for its design flexibility, distinctive colours, natural textures, durability and sustainability. Its use can be traced back over 4000 years where it had extensive use in palaces, temples and statues. As a building material, terracotta has been used for thousands of years — and is likely to continue for thousands more.

Terracotta cladding is gaining a resurgence as architects and designers look at natural, textured and ecofriendly building materials that can add vitality to new building designs.

Refer to our article titled “How to Specify Terracotta” for design inspiration using terracotta as a cladding material.

Once a decision has been made to include terracotta cladding as your building façade, there are several aspects of design that need consideration, below are the key components.

Cladding Methods

Modern day construction typically relies on two main methods to cladding a building in terracotta. These include rainscreen and precast concrete installations.

1.Rainscreen:

The most common method of installing terracotta cladding is as a rainscreen – the panels are installed onto an aluminium support system designed to support the cladding on the buildings substrate.

This method creates a continuous external barrier made of the terracotta panels with overlapping joints; designed to drain water away from the cavity that lies behind panels.

Rainscreen façade is a two-level construction system which provides superior waterproofing, condensation control, long term durability and thermal efficiency.  

Design Considerations for Terracotta Rainscreen Systems

Rainscreen system – designed to reduce water ingress and facilitate better airflow behind the façade.

Design Considerations for Terracotta Rainscreen Systems

Benefits of the Argeton Terracotta Rainscreen System

  • Weather protection
  • Preventing heat accumulation
  • Moisture control
  • Sound protection
  • Thermal insulation
  • Fire protection

When rain and wind force moisture towards the building, the majority is deflected by the terracotta outer layer, the primary weatherproof layer. The moisture that penetrates through the outer layer is then effectively managed through ventilation and drainage in the cavity between the primary weatherproofing layer and the secondary weatherproof layer. Rainscreen systems utilise air flow and ventilation to insulate buildings and minimize exposure and damage caused by the elements.

These rainscreen facades are designed to provide effective drainage and create convective air-flow up the cavity. Warmer air within the cavity rises and draws cooler air in from the base of the wall, helping to keep the building mass cool as well as providing evaporative drying in the cavity for moisture and condensation management.

The Argeton Terracotta cladding system is a ventilated cavity wall system that acts as the primary weatherproofing layer preventing wind driven rain from reaching the structural wall, allowing the wall cavity to breath, and preventing mould build up within the cavity. Being an open joint system, air is able to circulate effectively through the joins so as to minimise pressure differences between the inside and outside cavities.

2. Precast Concrete:

The alternative method to Rainscreen installation involves fixing the terracotta to precast concrete panels. In this example a veneer is bonded onto large precast concrete units at the warehouse, once delivered to site, these precast sections are then lifted into position and fixed to the building.

Design Considerations for Terracotta Rainscreen Systems

This installation method offers the strength of the concrete panels combined with the look of terracotta when viewed outside. This option allows for various profiles to be fixed to the precast sections; therefore, loss of design flexibility is not a concern.

The advantage of this method is the strength offered by the precast concrete panels and speed of installation at the site. This is due to the individual terracotta panels being installed at the warehouse prior to going to site.

However, care does need to be taken, as ongoing maintenance of the joins between the precast sections is required in order to ensure a weathertight second barrier is maintained throughout the life of the façade.

Across Australia the most common installation method for facades is the Rainscreen method. Over the years the industry has become accustomed to working with this design with a resulting high degree of reliability and durability into the long term.

Sunscreens

As an extension to cladding, terracotta is gaining a lot of interest in application such as sunscreens.

Design Considerations for Terracotta Rainscreen Systems

Terracotta baguettes are designed to act as a sunscreen to reduce the amount of radiant heat striking the building while adding colour, depth and a distinctive modern appearance to any building.

Design Considerations for Terracotta Rainscreen Systems

Terracotta sunscreens are made as louvers and baguettes and are available in many colours, textures and shapes to provide an architect with full design freedom while maximising the thermal performance of the building.

These can be used in combination with terracotta panels in both internal and external applications to create unique visual effects, a uniform transition between elements, warmth, and maximum design flexibility.

Argeton Barro profile is available in various shapes and colours.

By reducing the amount of radiant heat reaching the building, terracotta suncreens reduce the amount of solar head gain through the façade and into the building, assisting to reduce energy use and environmental impact of the building. Louvers can be positioned to block radiant heat during peak summer months and allow radiant heat through during the winter months.

Argeton’s range of Baguettes and Louvers offer:

  • Vast variety of formats and colours.
  • Non-fade/UV resistant.
  • Hidden fasteners.
  • No maintenance costs
  • Fully recyclable.
  • Resistance to aggressive substances. 

Thermal

One of the key characteristics of terracotta is low heat transfer – feature that holds its heads and shoulders above many products in the market. 

A typical 3mm solid aluminium had approximately 8-9kg or aluminium mass per M2. Depending on the type of terracotta cladding, the weight could be over $40 kg/M2. Terracotta’s higher mass value means that the thermal performance of a building is enhanced by using this product.   

Design Considerations for Terracotta Rainscreen Systems

The heat transfer process through the building wall occurs by the conduction, convection, and radiation. For example, in the daytime the solar radiation hits the external all surface, a part of which is released to the outdoor environment and the other part if absorbed and conducted across the material. The heat transfer through the building envelope depends on several factors but the key one that is a benefit of terracotta is the thermal mass.

Thermal mass the amount of heat energy that the object can absorb and store. In the building, thermal mass can significantly minimise indoor temperature fluctuation and reduce the heating and cooling demand.

Terracotta compared to lighter and thinner materials have a higher mass, a higher density which will moderate the heat transfer into the building.

The higher thermal mass of terracotta sees it able to offer over four times better resistance to heat transfer when compared to solid metal products. When coupled with a rainscreen installation method, terracotta cladding offers even greater thermal performance. The circulation of air within the cavity helps remove any heat transferred through the terracotta which assist with reducing energy costs.

Using terracotta sunscreens can assist by further reducing the amount of radiant heat striking the façade and help supercharge the thermal performance of the building.

Mounting

Common terracotta installation is via the rainscreen method, where the terracotta panels are mounted onto an aluminium mounting system designed to offer durability, air flow and significantly reduce the penetration of moisture into the cavity.

Argeton terracotta façade incorporates two installation methods:

1. Vertical Method: – Ideal for large tiles where the vertical substructure can be spaced widely to reduce installation costs

Design Considerations for Terracotta Rainscreen Systems

Wall brackets and T-profiles are attached to the wall/substrate and create a structure for the terracotta panels to attach to the wall.

Design Considerations for Terracotta Rainscreen Systems

The Vertical joint profile profiles prevent water ingress between the vertical joins of the tile while the clips secure the tile to the T-profile substructure and fix the panels to the façade.

2. Horizontal method: – Ideal for smaller tiles where the horizontal carrier rails are used to secure the terracotta panels to the substructure.

Design Considerations for Terracotta Rainscreen Systems

Wall brackets and L/T-profiles are attached to the wall/substrate and create a structure for the terracotta panels to attach to the wall.

Design Considerations for Terracotta Rainscreen Systems

The Vertical joint profile profiles prevent water ingress between the vertical joins of the tile while the clips secure the tile to the horizontal carrier rail and fix the panels to the façade.

The Argeton system has been designed for simplicity, speed and durability. By creating a cavity behind the terracotta panels, you allow air flow to help improve thermal performance and moisture management.

Terracotta as a building façade offer great advantages over other building products which explains its use over several millennium and its increasing relevance in contemporary building designs today.

Key to this are the benefits of terracotta – these being: 

  • Durable and long lasting performance
  • Good thermal performance
  • Low cost of maintenance
  • Wide variety of colours on offer
  • Not affected by fire like other products
  • Wide variety of textures on offer
  • Eco-friendly due to ease of recyclability
  • Wide variety of shapes on offer

If you haven’t considered using terracotta for your cladding – you are missing out on a lot of opportunities to take your building design from ordinary to extraordinary.

No other product can boast the tenure as a building product that spans several millennium, be contemporary and offer characteristics that are still relevant in today’s building requirements.

DISCOVER MORE ABOUT ARGETON. 

Fairview
Australia
With almost 30 years’ experience in the façade industry, Fairview is committed to providing aesthetically pleasing and safe cladding products to the construction industry. Our aim is to consistently facilitate the successful delivery of innovative façades that meet the requirements and vision of every project.With one of the largest stock holds in Australia, we have the ability to ensure a consistent and timely supply to our dedicated installer network. In addition, our flexible and innovative approach allows us to work closely with our clients to deliver the best possible project outcomes.Our HistoryFairview Architectural was developed to primarily service the aluminium composite façade market with our product Vitrabond. After several years, we began manufacturing Ceramapanel pre-finished CFC and soon after, secured the coveted ArGeTon terracotta façade tiles distribution for Australia.Our expansion into the United Kingdom market with our flagship product Vitrabond allowed us to establish a global presence, and this, in addition to growing our suite of façade solutions, indicated the need for a strategic realignment of our brand. In 2015 Fairview Architectural moved to simply be known as Fairview. This new approach allows us to better house the extensive suite of products we now manufacture and distribute and more effectively represents the innovative and professional company we have become.Our flexibility and attention to innovation, allowed us the ability to develop a range of non-combustible aluminium composite panel solutions, as part of our focus on addressing the issue of combustible façades; launching Vitracore G2 in 2015 and Vitradual in 2017.Corporate FoundationOur MissionInnovative and proactive organisation, consistently delivering industry leading façade solutions; renowned for excellence of product and superior customer service.Our VisionTo lead the industry through consistently facilitating the successful delivery of innovative façade solutions.Our ValuesTrust and respect / We work together to create a culture of interdependence built on trust, respect and dignity for all. Each person’s contribution is critical to our success.Achievement and Excellence / We strive for excellence in everything we do; we challenge our thinking and look beyond the obvious.Customer Service / We serve people in a way that is above and beyond what is expected.Meaningful Innovation / We are the Façade Company that invents products and solutions that matter.Uncompromising Integrity / We are open, honest and direct in our dealings.Solutions Minded / We are passionate about developing and presenting solutions for every project.

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